Philosophy of education can refer to either the academic field of applied philosophy or to one of any educational philosophies that promote a specific type or vision of education, and/or which examine the definition, goals and meaning of education. In philosophy there are various schools / streams, such as materialism, idealism, realism, pragmatism, and others. The liberal arts, coupled with religious worship and instruction, ensure correct belief about the nature and order of the universe and about God’s relation to man; philosophy and theology show the more able—those destined for the hierarchy of the church—why those beliefs are true. But adopting an African philosophy of education isn’t about just analysing the continent’s problems. Different cultural and ethnic groups learn to work cooperatively and contribute to a democratic society.
Socrates’ student Plato endorsed that view and held that a fundamental task of education is that of helping students to value reason and to be reasonable, which for him involved valuing wisdom above pleasure, honour, and other less-worthy pursuits. Last, these objects are understood as examples of general concepts; they are, to use Pestalozzi’s word, defined.
Nietzsche, Dewey and Heidegger criticized Plato and idealismThe message that we gather from their respective philosophies is that idealism is a philosophy that results in the weakening of individuals. Plato’s writings contain some of the following ideas: Elementary education would be confined to the guardian class till the age of 18, followed by two years of compulsory military training and then by higher education for those who qualified.
The Ph.D. in Education is an interdisciplinary doctoral program offered jointly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education and the Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. The individual himself is the value giver, for nobody knows what situation the next generation will find itself in. Thus, the task of education is the enhancement of individual’s natural capabilities like judgment, senses, and creativity. This theory of knowledge helps to give the pragmatic flavor to Dewey’s philosophy of education. Education should be activity based; it should not be based on the concept of passive learning.
In the work of Kant a greater optimism than Rousseau’s gave a less individualistic objective to education. The Spencer Foundation provides funding for investigations that promise to yield new knowledge about education in the United States or abroad. The classes within this specialty in the Philosophy Department play an important role with regard to preparing students who intend to specialize in teaching Philosophy and Ethics within schools.